How to Do Accounting for Small Business: Basics of Accounting

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How to Do Accounting for Small Business: Basics of Accounting

How to Do Accounting for Small Business: Basics of Accounting
report for small businesses is done by keeping a complete record of all the income and expenses and accurately extracting fiscal information from business transactions .
This is a necessary job that helps little clientele owners track and manage their money effectively – particularly during the early on stages. Besides keeping you cognizant about your business ‘ past and present operation, small business accounting besides helps in generating invoices and completing payroll.

What this article covers :
NOTE: FreshBooks Support team members are not certified income tax or accounting professionals and cannot provide advice in these areas, outside of supporting questions about FreshBooks. If you need income tax advice please contact an accountant in your area .

How Do You Do Bookkeeping for a Small Business?

Analyzing Financial Transactions

The summons of accounting starts with analyzing fiscal transactions and entering the ones pertaining to the clientele entity into the accountancy organization. For exemplar, loans taken for personal reasons are not included in the business documents
The beginning step of the accounting action involves the preparation of source documents. A generator document or occupation document serves as the foundation for recording a transaction .

Journal Entries

occupation transactions are recorded in a journal ( besides known as Books of Original Entry ) in a chronological arrange using the double-entry bookkeeping system. The daybook entries include two accounts – debit and credit .
To make this action easier, accountants use a special daybook to record recurring transactions such as purchases, sales, cash receipts etc. the transactions that can not be included in the particular journals are recorded in the cosmopolitan diary .


The general ledger is a collection of accounts that display the changes made to each report based on past transactions, along with the current balances in each report. It is besides known as the Books of Final Entry .

Unadjusted Trial Balance

A trial balance is prepare to test if the entire debits adequate entire credits. The accounts are extracted from the daybook and arranged in a report card. The balances of the debit and credit columns should be adequate .
If not, the trial remainder contains errors which need to be located and rectified with correcting entries. It ’ randomness important to note that some errors may exist despite the debits equaling credits, such as errors caused by bivalent stake or due to the omission of entries .

Adjusting Entries

At the end of the account period, the accountant must prepare the adjusting entries to update the accounts that are summarized in the fiscal statements. For exemplar, income earned but not recorded in the books .
Adjusting entries are made for accumulation of income and expenses, depreciation, allowances, deferrals and prepayments .

Adjusted Trial Balance

once the adjust entries are made, an align test balance must be prepared. This is done to test if the debits match the credits after the adjust entries are made. This is the concluding step before the preparation of the business ’ fiscal statements.

Financial Statements

The fiscal statements which include the income instruction, instruction of changes in equity, poise sheet, statement of cash flow and notes are the end products of the accounting arrangement .

Closing Entries

To prepare the system for the future accountancy, temp accounts that are bill sporadically, including the income, expense and withdrawal accounts, are closed. The balance sheet accounts besides called the permanent accounts, remain candid for the adjacent accounting cycle .
The last footstep of the accounting cycle is to prepare a post-closing trial balance to test the equality of the debits and credit amounts after the close entries are made. This trial balance contains real accounts merely as the impermanent accounts are closed this report cycle .

How Do I Set up a Small Business Accounting System?

Open a Business Bank Account

When you start a commercial enterprise, open a separate bank report that will keep your business finances separate from your personal ones .

Choosing an Accounting Method

When setting up a small business report system, you need to choose a method acting of recording fiscal transactions. There are basically two methods of recording income and expenses – the cash basis and the accumulation basis of account .


Under the cash-basis method acting of accountancy, you record income and expenses when cash transactions are done. For exemplar, you record tax income for a product only when the customer pays you for the product .

Accrual basis

While cash footing may be easier to use, most businesses choose the accumulation basis account for recording transactions. Under this method, you record income when you make a sale and expenses when you incur them. This is regardless of whether you received or paid cash for the merchandise or serve. You must use a double-entry account arrangement and record two entries for every transaction .

Recording Transactions

As a small business owner, you have the option of hiring an accountant, recording transactions by hand or using an accountancy software to record your business transactions .

Compile a Chart of Accounts

A chart of accounts lists all business transaction and is used to compile statements, review progress and settle transactions. These charts have to be updated often to include respective business transactions .

Determine your Payment Terms

Based on the nature of your commercial enterprise, you might decide to offer credit to customers. rather of collecting payments at the point of sale, you may choose to invoice them at a late date .
If you decide to extend credit to customers, you will need a coherent system of creating and sending invoices .

Do You Need an Accountant for a Small Business?

If you ’ re a little business owner, hiring an accountant can save you a set of fourth dimension and money. Accountants can help belittled occupation owners with the following tasks :

  • During the formation of your business, an accountant can help you write a business plan
  • Advise you on your business’s entity structure
  • Help you obtain appropriate licenses such as business licenses, sales tax permits and employment accounts
  • Set up your accounting software and chart of accounts when you do not want to incur the bookkeeper’s services on a regular
  • Deal with compliance and complex sales tax issues
  • Handle complex labor costs including wage and labor compliance issues that can sink even the most profitable businesses.
  • Help you meet the requirements for creditors or licensing agencies
  • Maintain inventory records by dates purchased, stock numbers, purchase prices, dates sold and sale prices

small commercial enterprise owners who can not afford to hire a professional may in the interim consider automating their small business account practices with one of the many cloud-based report software applications .
Most of these applications cover the basics of account from invoicing, payments and payroll. The software can assist you in keeping accurate records and produce basic fiscal statements .